DEEP ECOLOGY AND THE CONSERVATION OF NATURE
深層生態學與自然保育

原作:約翰席德 John Seed
翻譯:瑞華、宜真、樹大棵
審閱:明慧、曉珮

In spite of the modern delusion of alienation, of separation from the living Earth, we are NOT aliens, we belong here. The human being is Earth-born, the result of 4000 million years of continuous evolution, and the complex, exquisite biology from which we emerged inevitably remains the matrix, the grounding of any sane humanity.

儘管現代人類有些錯謬的想法,誤以為我們與自然一邊一國,但事實是我們並不是外星人,我們屬於地球,是由地球所生,是40億年來不斷演化的結果。而讓我們能夠成型的這些複雜、微妙的生物機制,即是所有人類的母體基礎。

We have all heard the news: For example, Dr. Raymond Dassman, Professor of Biology, University of California announced that "The 3rd World War has begun: it is being waged against the Earth."

我們都聽過一個說法,也就是加州大學生物系教授Raymond Dassman博士所宣佈的: 「第三次世界大戰已經開始,而這次是衝著地球來的!」

More recently, at the end of 2009, Professor Kevin Anderson, director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change and one of the UK's most senior climate scientists, stated that only around 10 per cent of the planet’s population – around half a billion people – will survive if global temperatures rise by 4C.

在2009年底,Tyndall氣候變遷中心總監,也是英國最資深的氣候科學家之一Kevin Anderson教授聲明,如果地球氣溫上升四度,只有不到十分之一的地球人口,也就是大約是五億人口能夠存活下來。

Two years earlier, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) told the world that at current rates of increase of fossil fuel emissions, we were heading toward a rise in global average temperatures of around 6C by the end of this century, leading to mass extinctions on a virtually uninhabitable planet. The Proceedings for the National Academy of Sciences (NAOS) has reported that current fossil fuel emissions are exceeding this worst-case scenario and, in August 2010 NAOS stated that the science of climate change is in the category of those theories that had "been so thoroughly examined and tested, and supported by so many independent observations and results, that their likelihood of subsequently being found to be wrong is vanishingly small. Such conclusions and theories are then regarded as settled facts."

兩年前,IPCC 聯合國政府間氣候變遷委員會告訴我們,按照目前石化氣體排放量增加的速度,到本世紀末,全球的平均溫度將會上升六度,屆時大量生物將會滅絕,地球將成為無法居住的星球。接著國家科學院NAOS的報告也指出,現在的石化氣體排放量已經超過上述那個夠糟的狀況了,並且在2010年八月NAOS宣布氣候變遷的科學理論已經被非常完整的檢驗測試,且有眾多獨立的觀察結果可以佐證,因此他們預測錯估的結果幾乎等於零。這樣的結論代表氣候變遷導致地球滅絕的理論幾乎等於既定事實。

We have all heard the news. Yet it has not changed our behaviour except in rather trivial ways.

我們都聽過上述的情況,但我們的行為因此而有所改變的卻很少。

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So how will we change our thinking and our behaviour? What is needed? Not more horrifying statistics surely. Everybody already knows. We feel helpless and disempowered. Scientists warn that we are the last generation of humanity that may have the chance to avert biological collapse and the destruction of the systems that support complex life on Earth. Professor Paul Ehrlich warns us "that we're sawing off the branch that we're sitting on." To me this indicates some kind of psychological problem no matter how much money we can get by by selling thee timber in that branch.

所以我們該如何改變我們的想法和行為呢?還需要什麼來幫助我們痛下決心,去做改變呢?肯定不是更多嚇人的統計數字,這是大家都知道的。我們覺得無助又無力。科學家警告說: 「我們可能是能夠扭轉生物崩解與遏止支持地球生物存活的系統走向毀滅的最後一個世代。」Paul Ehrlich教授也警告我們說:「我們正在鋸下我們正坐著的樹幹!」姑且不論所鋸下的樹幹能為我們帶來多少財富, 「鋸下我們正坐著的樹幹「這種行為對我來說已經指出背後是有某些心理層面的問題的!

I graduated in Psychology at Sydney University in the mid-'60's. After a stint as an IBM systems engineer in London, in 1979, by chance, I found myself embroiled in what turned out to be the first direct action in defense of the rainforests to take place in Australia or indeed, anywhere the world.

我在1960年代中畢業於雪梨大學心理系。之後於倫敦IBM公司擔任系統工程師。在 1979年,因著一個機緣,我發現自己捲入澳洲或甚至是說全世界第一個直接保護雨林的行動中。

Terania Creek was this site of this action and it happened to be adjacent to the community where I had been living for five years. I somehow found myself involved in the defense of the rainforest there and suddenly everything changed. I heard the trees screaming. I heard them calling out to us for help and I couldn't resist that call. If I went to see a psychiatrist and said that I heard the Earth screaming, wouldn't my experience be reduced to a purely personal pathology? It would show that there was something wrong with me. Perhaps he would want me to talk about my childhood?

Terania小溪是這個行動發生的地點,而且這個地點剛好位在我住了五年的社區旁邊。我發現自己介入保護雨林的抗爭行動中。突然間,所有事情都變了。我聽到樹林在尖叫,我聽到他們在呼喊我們,求助於我們,我無法抗拒這些呼喊。如果那時我去看精神科醫師,然後告訴他我聽到地球在尖叫,我想我的這些體驗會被簡化為一種純屬個人的病理現象。這些體驗會讓我顯的有些異常,也許他會要我談談我的童年經驗?

At first my experience was frightening and bewildering. The trees screaming? How could this be? In later years as I studied the matter , I discovered that this rainforest that I had found myself defending was part of the original flora of Australia. 130 million years ago when Australia was part of the mighty super continent Gondwanaland, joined to South America and Antarctica, before the continents drifted apart, all of it was covered in rainforest. Indeed, my ancestors were evolving within this very rainforest for nearly all those 130 million years, and it is only during the last few million years that we sought our fortunes down on the ground. So it became less surprising to see how some kind of psychological or spiritual contact with the rainforest was possible, and it became rather more surprising that more people didn't seem to be experiencing it in this way.

一開始有這些體驗時我的反應是害怕與迷惑的。樹木在尖叫?怎麼可能?後來幾年間當我開始研究這個事件,我發現我當時保護的這片雨林是屬於澳洲原始林的一部分。一億三千萬年前,在各大洲還未分離、澳洲還屬於偉大的岡瓦納古陸且連接於南美洲與南極洲時,所有的大陸都覆蓋著雨林。的確,我的祖先在這一億三千萬年間,在這座雨林裡持續的演化出來,而我們開始開鑿地底寶庫也不過是數百年來的事情。因此,就算能與雨林有某些心理上或靈性層面的接觸也毋需這麼驚訝。在有了這個體悟之後,當我發現多數人無法有這樣的體驗時,反而是讓我覺得驚訝的。

After Terania Creek I went on to start the Rainforest Information Centre, the first NGO in the world to have the rainforests as its agenda with projects from India to Ecuador, from New Guinea to Siberia.

Terania小溪抗爭事件後,我成立了雨林資訊中心。這是全世界第一個把保護雨林列入工作項目的NGO,我們足跡遍布各地,從印度到厄瓜多爾,從幾內亞到西伯利亞。

However, it soon became apparent that the forests could not be saved one at a time.

然而,很快的我們就明白我們無法一次只拯救一個雨林。

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In spite of our successful direct actions defending the sub-tropical rainforests of New South Wales in 1981, the temperate rainforests in Tasmania in 1982 and the tropical rainforests of far north Queensland in 1986, it was clear that for every forest protected during those years, thousands disappeared around the world.

儘管我們成功的保護了幾個雨林,包括1981年我們搶救了新南威爾士的亞熱帶雨林、1982年塔斯梅尼亞島的溫帶雨林、以及1986年極北昆士蘭的熱帶雨林, 但我們很清楚的看到成功搶救一個雨林的同時,世界上有千百個雨林消失了。

And of course the planet could not be saved one issue at a time. While we were protecting forests, a mass extinction of life was underway - 100 species a day lost from the planet - and humanity threatening to choke on our own exhaust gasses and the other "byproducts" of our progress.

當然,我們不能以一次解決一件事的方式解救地球。當我們保護森林的同時,有更多的生命在大量滅絕,以每天100個物種的速度消失。而同時人類也被自己製造排放的氣體及其他進步文明帶來的副產品, 弄得無法呼吸。

By the early '80's it was obvious to me that unless we could somehow address the underlying psychological or spiritual disease that afflicts modern humanity and allows us to to imagine that we can somehow profit from the destruction of our own life support systems, unless we could deal with this madness, all of our actions and projects were merely symbolic. You can't save a forest. Its either going to be a green planet or a bowl of dust.

80年代初期我就體認到,除非我們可以點出那扭曲當代人性,讓我們幻想自己可以從破壞自己的維生系統中受益,潛藏在此背後的心理及心靈病因, 除非我們可以處理這種瘋狂的想法,否則我們所有的努力及行動都只具有象徵性的意義,並救不了雨林。眼前只有兩條路,我們的地球不是成為一個綠色星球、就是化為一堆灰塵。

It was at this point that I discovered deep ecology and for the first time, found an analysis of our situation that helped me understand how we had come to this awful situation and perhaps what we can do about it.

在這時間點上我接觸到「深層生態學」,也在同時,我首次對於我們的現狀做了正確的分析,這協助我了解為何我們會走到如此糟糕的地步,以及找出解決問題的可行方法。

Deep Ecology is the name of a philosophy of nature that has been exerting a profound effect on environmentalism in recent decades.

深層生態學是近年來對環境運動有極深刻影響的一門哲學。

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Over thousands of years, modern humans have developed an anthropocentric or human-centred perspective. I don’t know anything about the historical antecedents of this in Taiwan (though I would love to find out), but where I come from this anthropocentrism stems from the Judeo-Christian tradition. The modern psyche and all the institutions it has created are based on the idea that the world was created only for the benefit of human beings. Only humans were created in God’s image, only humans have a soul, only humans have intrinsic value. The only value that other species, rivers, forests, oceans and mountains can have, is instrumental value as a resource for humans. The Christian bible claims that it is humanity’s role to "subdue and dominate" all the other creatures and that they are to be "in fear and trembling" of us.

在過去的幾千年裡,現代人類發展出一套以人為中心的觀點。我不清楚台灣在這點的發展歷史為何(雖然我很有興趣知道),但在我成長的社會裡,這樣的想法來自於猶太及基督教教義,以世界是為服務人類而產生的論調為基礎,建制現代社會的精神及制度層面。只有人是依神的形象創造的,只有人有靈魂及內在的價值,其他物種、河流、森林、海洋及山脈的價值,都只是工具,只有提供資源給人使用的價值。基督教的聖經宣稱,人類的角色是征服並統治萬物,而萬物必須心懷恐懼臣服於人類。

Within this paradigm, the world is a just stage and we humans are the star of the drama, everyone else is just "bit players", scenery.

在這樣的說法裡,世界是ㄧ個舞台,我們人類是舞台上的主角,其他的都只是小角色。

Now the science of ecology (as well as the wisdom of indigenous peoples) denies this perspective: the world is not a pyramid with humans on top, but a web. And we humans are not the spider in the middle, we are just one strand in that web and as we destroy the other strands, we destroy ourselves.

現在生態學(包括有智慧的原住民)都否定此種說法,這世界不是ㄧ個將人類置於最上端的金字塔,而是ㄧ個網,人類不是居於網中央的蜘蛛,而是其間的一股蜘蛛絲,我們如果毀掉其他的絲,就是毀掉自己。

After thousands of years of conditioning, we have inherited shallow, fictitious selves, disconnected from nature.

經過數千年的訓練,我們已承襲這種淺薄虛假的自我,和自然脫離。

James Lovelock, the scientist who proposed the Gaia hypothesis (which says that the Earth is not just a lump of rock with "resources" growing on it but is a living integrated being), has said that what we are doing to the world is as if the brain were to decide that it was the most important organ in the body and started mining the liver.

James Lovelock,這位提出蓋婭假設(認為地球不只是ㄧ大塊充滿資源的岩石,而是ㄧ個生物體)的科學家,談到我們對地球所做的事,就好比把人類視為身體中最重要的器官─腦,並且對其他的器官,例如:肝,則不在乎,覺得挖掉亦無妨。

Even though in recent decades our IDEAS may have changed to incorporate the insights of ecology, ideas are not just in our heads, they’re embodied in the way that the world is arranged. All of the institutions of our society and the very language we speak, conspire to bind us in this outmoded and now (wedded to our powerful technologies and growing populations) deadly way of perceiving our world. Our ideas may change yet our institutions and personalities were forged in this mold and we seem incapable of giving substance to our new, ecological, vision.

即便最近十幾年來,我們已經改變想法來擁抱某些生態學洞見,但舊有的想法卻不只是存在我們的腦中,它們仍具體的彰顯在我們所做的每件事上。我們社會中所有的組織和我們所說的語言共謀,以這些既過時且致命(現今還結合強大科技與成長的人口)的方式來看我們的世界。我們的想法或許已經改變,但我們的社會組織與個性皆已陷入在舊有的模式中,使我們無法給我們新認知到的生態學洞見有所回饋。

Arne Naess, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at Oslo University, the man who coined the term "Deep Ecology" wrote "it is not enough to have ecological ideas, we have to have ecological identity, ecological self."

奧斯陸大學的榮譽哲學系教授,也就是將「深層生態學」這個詞定名的人,阿恩.內斯,寫到:「只是擁有一些生態學的想法是不夠的,我們必須有生態性的認同,也就是生態我。」

He pointed out that a sense of responsibility or duty is a "treacherous basis" for conservation. How many of us are capable of altruism? As long as we are in the grip of the illusion that the Earth is other than our very self it seems unrealistic to suppose that we can make the very difficult changes in our lives and societies that would be needed to live contentedly within the constraints of the ecological systems.

他指出責任感或義務感的產生是對自然保育的一個「危險的開始」。我們有多少人真實擁抱利他主義?只要我們還存有「自然與我們一邊一國」這樣的錯覺,我們便不可能為了要在整個生態系統中與萬物和平共處而大費周章的去做出一些艱辛的改變

If we can identify with the Earth we don't need altruism. If we have the experience of ourselves not as isolated, separate, skin encapsulated egos but as part of the larger body of the Earth, then the defense of nature becomes merely self-defense and this does not require a highly elevated moral stature. Self-interest comes "naturally" and it seems more hopeful to expand the sense of self to include the air (my breath) and water (my blood) and soil (my body), than to suddenly imagine most of us becoming "selfless", acting against our perceived self-interest to protect these things.

如果我們可以與地球產生認同,我們就不需要利他主義。如果我們體認到的自我不是孤立、分離、壓縮在皮膚下的「我」而已,而是地球這個大身體的一部分,那麼對自然的保衛變成只是一種自我防衛,而自我防衛是不需要擁有高度道德感才能被激發的,畢竟自私對我們來說是很自然的!若我們能把「自我擴張、涵蓋到空氣(我的呼吸)、水(我的血液)和土(我的身體)並加以保護,這比起幻想大家都能瞬間變成無私﹑願意犧牲自己的利益來保護自然要容易的多了!!

Still, through thousands of years of conditioning absorbed by osmosis since the day we were born, we have succeeded in creating this incredibly pervasive illusion of separation from nature.

然而,數千年以來,「人與萬物是分離的、這個普遍的錯覺已經深深的滲透到我們的思想當中,而且是從我們出生那天就開始!

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Now the fact that this is entirely an illusion can be demonstrated very simply by holding your breath for about 5 minutes. That is, I am not talking about anything particularly mystical, it is very straight forward. We can name it "the atmosphere" and we can say "oh what a good person that is sacrificing their self interest by working to protect the atmosphere instead of making lots of money" as though the atmosphere was "out there". But it is not "out there". None of it is "out there". It is all constantly migrating and cycling through us, whether it's the atmosphere, the water, or the soil. There is no "out there", it is all "in here", but most modern people don't feel that.

「人與萬物是分離的「是個錯覺的這個事實可由憋住氣五分鐘來得到證明。我不是在講神秘﹑難懂的事,道理就是那麼簡單。我們會說:「哇!這個人真好,願意犧牲自己的利益,來保護環境。」這樣的說法好像在說環境跟我們是隔開的﹑是在「己身之外」。但事實並非如此,不論是空氣,水或土,他們都在我們裡面不斷的移動循環著。沒有所謂的「外面」,全都是在「裡面」,但大部分的現代人都沒有這樣的感受。

As long as "the" environment is experienced as "out there", we may leave it to some special interest group like the greens to protect while we look after number one. The matter changes when we deeply realise that the nature "out there" and the nature "in here" are one and the same, are continuous, that the sense of separation no matter how pervasive, is nonetheless totally illusory.

只要我們看待環境還是用「外面」的這種角度、思維,我們便會把保護環境的工作留給某些特殊的利益團體如環保團體,而我們仍繼續的把注意力放在自己的身上。這個情況只有在我們深刻的體認到自然不在「外面」而是在我們「裡面」才有可能改變。到那時,我們才真能體認到「人與萬物是分離的」這個理論是個錯誤!

In response to such things, Joanna Macy and I developed a workshop of experiential deep ecology rituals called the Council of All Beings and, with Arne Naess, wrote a book in 1986 called Thinking Like A Mountain - Towards a Council of All Beings (which has been translated into 12 languages)

為了回應此事, Joanna Macy和我發展出一個體驗深層生態學儀式的工作坊 – 「眾生大會」。並且我們和阿恩.內斯在1986年合寫了一本書叫做《像山一樣思考 – 走向眾生大會》(現已被翻譯成12國語言)

In this workshop we REMEMBER our rootedness in nature, recapitulate our entire evolutionary journey and release the memories locked in our DNA. We experience the fact that every cell in our body is descended in an unbroken chain 4 billion years old, through fish that learned to walk the land, reptiles whose scales turned to fur and became mammals, evolving through to the present.

在這個工作坊中我們重新回想起我們在自然中的根,回溯我們生命整體的進化旅程,並釋放在我們DNA內緊閉的記憶。我們經驗到我們身體內的每個細胞是過去40億年來從未間斷的傳承 – 從學習在陸地上行走的魚類,鱗片進化成毛皮然後繼續演化成哺乳類的爬蟲類,再繼續演化到現在的樣子。

We further extend our sense of identity in the Council of All Beings itself where we find an ally in the natural world, make a mask to represent that ally, and allow the animals and plants and landscapes to speak through us. We are shocked at the very different view of the world that emerges from their dialogue. Creative suggestions for human actions emerge and we invoke the powers and knowledge of these other life-forms to empower us in our lives.

我們進一步在眾生大會中擴大身份認同。我們在自然界中找到一個自然物,做一個面具來代表他,並且讓這些動物﹑植物或景物透過我們表達意見。我們從他們的對話中,很驚訝的發現一個對這個世界非常不同的觀點。有很多人類可以採取的創意行動被建議出來,並且我們也藉著這些生物的內在力量與知識來為我們的生活加添能力。

We remember that, until quite recently, humans have been doing ceremonies like this for a long time, hundreds of thousands of years perhaps, and to our surprise, it comes very easily and naturally to us. Invariably we are shocked to hear voices that we have never heard before, profound truths revealed.

直到最近,我們都還記得,人類進行這樣的儀式已經有很長的一段時間,也許已經幾十萬年。很令人驚訝的是,它竟是如此簡單和自然。我們總是對從來沒有聽過的聲音感到震驚,因為真相終於揭露了。

One of the rituals at the Council of All Beings is a mourning: we grieve for all that is being lost from the world, the species lost, the landscapes destroyed. Only if we will allow ourselves to feel the pain of the Earth, can we be effective in Her healing. This is why the Vietnamese Buddhist monk, Thich Naht Hanh, said that in order to heal the Earth, "the most important thing that we can do is to hear, inside ourselves, the sounds of the Earth crying".

眾生大會中有一個「追思」的儀式:讓我們哀悼所有已經消失的事物、滅絕的物種、破壞的景觀。只有當我們親身體驗地球的痛苦,我們才能有效地去療癒她。這就是為什麼越南佛僧Thich Naht Hanh(一行禪師)說:「為了醫治地球,最重要的事,就是從我們內心深處去聽到地球的吶喊。」

We have a deep longing for reconnection with the Earth. With this longing repressed , a host of displacement activities arise. We feel a pervasive anguish and emptiness and spend our lives trying to fill the gaping wound with all manner of "stuff". We have to dig up and chop down the Earth to make and power all the hair-driers and microwave ovens and electric toothbrushes with which we try, unsuccessfully, to fill the hole.

我們極端渴望與地球重新連接,但這個渴望被潛制,因此出現大量的替代性活動。我們處處感到苦悶和空虛,試著用各式各樣的「東西」來填補撕裂的傷口以過日子。我們只好去挖掘和破壞地球,來製造和發電啟動吹風機、微波爐、電動牙刷,但仍無法填補這個裂口。

It's not really all these material "goods" that we want however, but a certain psychological state that we imagine will follow. It never does follow of course, and no amount of material "stuff" brings us peace.

我們想要的其實不是這些物質性的「東西」,而是某種我們以為會隨著這些東西而來的心理狀態。當然,它從未出現,也沒有任何「物質東西」能帶給我們寧靜。

In response to the question "how is this expansion of identification to be developed?", Arne Naess responded that what are needed are "community therapies" to develop ecological self.

針對「如何擴大身份認同?」這個問題,阿恩.內斯這樣回應:現在需要「社群療法」來發展生態我。

At first I was very excited by this as it gave me a new perspective on the Council of All Beings. Although I had facilitated many such workshops, I'd never seen them in this light.

起初我很興奮,因為這讓我對眾生大會有新的體認,雖然我已經辦過很多這種工作坊,但從來沒有這樣想過。

After some time however, I came to see certain shortcomings in the "therapy" metaphor. While on Third Mesa in New Mexico, I was privileged to witness an ancient indigenous Hopi ritual. It took place in the town square of the oldest continuously inhabited community in the Western Hemisphere. Although the masks were more splendid and the drumbeat more confident, in many ways it was identical to the Council of All Beings and these people had been doing this regularly for thousands and thousands of years.

但是過一段時間後,我發現「治療」這個比喻有些缺失。在新墨西哥州的第三台地(Third Mesa),我有幸參加一個古老的美洲原住民霍皮族(Hopi)的儀式。它是在一個一直都有人居住,西半球最古老的社群的社區廣場舉行。這個儀式跟眾生大會有很多相似的地方,只是面具更精彩,鼓聲更自信,而且他們定期舉辦這種儀式已經有好幾千年了。

But therapies aren’t supposed to last for thousands of years. These ceremonies and rituals have no end. Perhaps the tendency to lose our connection with the living Earth is very ancient. Perhaps it began as soon as we began to think? What else could explain the fact that every intact indigenous culture that we look at has, at it's root, a series of such ceremonies and rituals whereby the human community can acknowledge and renew and nourish our interconectedness with the land and the rest of the Earth community?

可是治療不應該持續數千年這麼久,但為什麼典禮和儀式卻從未間斷呢。也許自古以來我們就有和地球失聯的傾向,或許從我們懂得思考那天就開始了?不然,如何解釋,為什麼每個我們看到擁有完整在地住民文化的社群,都有一系列根深蒂固的典禮和儀式,讓人類社群得以承認、更新、而且滋養我們與這塊土地,以及地球上其他社群相互連接的關係?

So, although the Council of All Beings is undeniably experienced as being therapeutic by participants, it reveals I think, a deeper significance; One remembers Joseph Campbell's warning that the chief sources of anxiety in our age are the loss of myth and ritual. We must heal our culture so that it once more provides us with authentic connection between our soul and the Earth. For me, the real work must include reclaiming these rituals and the empowerment that they offer, and to take that empowerment and spread it through our lives, finding ways to serve the Earth.

所以,儘管參加眾生大會的人,都認為這無疑是經歷一趟治療,我認為它代表一個更深的意義。這讓人想起Joseph Campbell的警告:「今天人類焦慮的主要原因,是因為神話和儀式已消失了。我們必須醫治我們的文化,讓它再次提供人類靈性與地球之間真正的連接。」對我來說,真正要做的工作,必須包括回復儀式和它所賦予的力量,並把這個力量落實在我們的生活中,以找出服事地球的方式。

This work is much more about experiences than ideas so, before moving on to talk about some of my work in the conservation of nature, I’d like to share with you a short experiential deep ecology process.

這份工作強調體驗重於想法,所以在談我的自然保育工作之前,我想向大家分享一個簡短的深層生態學體驗過程。

As I wrote in "Thinking Like a Mountain", for myself this transformation of perspective from anthropocentrism to deep ecology resulted from my actions on behalf of Mother Earth.

正如我在《像山一樣思考》中所寫,我的觀點從人類中心主義轉變到深層生態學,是從我把自己當成代表「地球母親」一樣行動後,所產生的結果。

In struggling to protect the rainforests near my home, I found that the sense of

在奮力保護我家附近的雨林時,我發現我從:

"I am protecting the rainforest"

「我在保護雨林。」的想法,

Changed into

改變為:

"I am part of the rainforest protecting myself. I am that part of the rainforest recently emerged into thinking."

「我是雨林的一部分,在保護我自己。這個想法,新近浮現在我腦中。」

What a relief then! The thousands of years of imagined separation are over and we begin to recall our true nature.

真是種解脫啊!幾千年思想上的分離已經結束,我們逐漸憶起我們的真實本質。

Furthermore the spiritual awakening that took place while participating in the defence of the rainforests has obviated the need for any other form through which to experience the divine - the Earth itself has become my sacred text.

此外,參與保護雨林所帶來靈性覺醒,讓我無需用任何其他形式來體驗神 ─ 地球本身已經成為我的聖典。

However, it is clear that many people's love of Earth is mediated thru one of the great faith traditions and that each of those traditions has within its texts and liturgies, many expressions of ecological sensibility and love of Earth.

但是,明顯地,很多人的愛地球是由於偉大的傳統信仰,在這些傳統的教誨和禮儀中,有許多關心生態和愛地球的表達。

These days, the Earth suffers under the thrall of the religion of the market place which is the dominant spiritual mode of these dark times.

近年來,地球受害於市場經濟的奴役,它是現今這段黑暗時期的主要精神模式。

Both nature and the faith traditions falter under the onslaught of the religion of economics, which is, I believe, the most pious religion the world has ever known, worshipping Mammon in skyscraping temples and shopping malls not just one day a week but seven; with worshippers all the more fervent by virtue of being completely unconsciousness that their supposed secularism is, in fact, a profound spiritual faith. I have written about this at some length last year for the University of Western Sydney’s "Handbook of Social Ecology."

在經濟信仰的衝擊下,自然和傳統的信念都產生動搖,我相信這是全世界最虔誠的宗教信仰,在高聳的廟堂和購物商場裏膜拜財神,不是一週一次,而是天天。那些無知狂熱的崇拜者,完全無感於他們所謂的世俗主義,其實已然成為他們的 一種深刻的精神信仰。這個議題,我去年曾為文刊載在西雪梨大學的《社會生態手冊》中。

I believe that we need to nourish both the growing shoots of ecological concern within the great faith traditions and also nourish spiritual understanding and respect within the conservation movement.

我認為,我們不但要在偉大傳統信仰中,培養正在發芽的對生態的關切;同時也要在保育運動中,培養靈性上的領悟力和尊重。

Part of my work has been exploring the overlap of ecology with Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism.

我也一直在探索基督教、猶太教、伊斯蘭教、佛教和印度教中,對生態的共同看法。

Earth is where all these mighty faiths meet, each has grown from the soil of this planet and it is in the Earth that they are reconciled. I will give two examples from Hinduism and Buddhism.

地球是這些偉大的信仰交會地,它們在這個星球的土壤成長,在這裡互相協調。我從印度教和佛教中、舉兩個例子。

Arunachala, a mountain in the State of Tamil Nadu, is one of the most sacred sites in India. In the Hindu tradition, the story is told that their supreme deity, Shiva, manifested as a column of light stretching from infinity to infinity. He was so dazzling that the others gods complained that they were being dazzled beyond endurance.

Arunachala山,在泰米爾納德邦,是印度最神聖的一個地點之ㄧ。印度教的傳統故事說,他們最崇高的神─濕婆,現身為一片無限廣闊的光,光芒耀眼到令其他神抱怨說無法忍受。

In his compassion, Shiva took on a new form as this mountain, Arunachala, and more than 1000 years ago a vast temple was built at its base. Many believe that walking the 11 km around Arunachala is the fastest way to enlightenment and pilgrims by the millions have thronged there since time immemorial.

濕婆心生悲憫,於是換個形式,化身為 Arunachala這座山。一千多年前山腳下蓋了一間龐大的寺廟,許多人認為,開悟的最快方法,是繞著Arunachala這座山步行一圈,總長有十一公里。因此自古以來,來此朝聖的人超過好幾百萬。

In the long line of illustrious sages who have taken up abode in caves on Arunachala was Ramana Maharshi, one of the most celebrated Hindu mystics of the 20th century who died in the '50's.

在Arunachal的山洞修行的眾多顯赫的聖賢中,20世紀的Ramana Maharshi,是其中最著名的印度教神秘主義,他在50年代過世。

In 1987, the Rainforest Information Centre received a letter from one of the nuns in Ramana's ashram telling us that when Ramana had arrived at the mountain as a young man, it had been clothed in a mighty jungle and even tigers could be met walking along its flanks. But now, nothing remained but thorns and goats, couldn't we please do something?

1987年,雨林資訊中心收到一封信,拉瑪納聚會所的比丘尼告訴我們,當時年輕的拉瑪納來到此地,這裡還是叢林密佈,甚至在山的一側都可以看到老虎。但現在,除了荊棘和山羊,什麼也沒有,我們難道不能做點什麼嗎?

We helped her set up an NGO and raised funding including two substantial grants from the Australian Government aid agency while volunteers from Australia spent more than seven years helping to reclothe the sacred mountain.

我們幫助她成立了一個非政府組織,同時向澳洲政府的援助機構籌募了兩筆資金,而來自澳洲的志工,花了七年時間,讓此聖山重披叢林綠意。

After some years, the authorities from the main temple invited us to move our tree nursery inside the temple walls and allowed us the use of their precious waters. Consequently, we initiated the regeneration of the temple gardens, growing flowers for their ceremonies as well as hundreds of thousands of native tree seedlings each year.

若干年後,寺廟當局請我們把苗圃移入寺內,並讓我們使用他們珍貴的水。從此,廟裡重新有一座花園,種花來給祭典用,以及每年種植幾千棵的本土樹苗。

When I returned to Arunachala last December, I was heartened to find that more than 10 new NGO's have sprung up around the base of the mountain. These inspired groups have constructed native tree nurseries and are engaged in tree planting, environmental education, fire prevention and fire fighting. Not only was I able to walk in the cool shade of the trees our project had planted for over 20 years , but I was able to witness also that our idea had taken root, the idea that Shiva could be worshipped by reweaving his ecological robes. A short film about this project, "Reweaving Shiva’s Robes" may be viewed here.

去年12月我又回到Arunachala,我很高興地發現,山腳下迸出十幾個新的非政府組織。這些被感召的團體,完成了本土樹種苗圃的建設,並推廣植樹、環境教育、防火和滅火。我不僅能在這些我們種了二十多年的陰涼樹影下散步,我還能夠親眼見到我們的想法已經紮根,一個重新編織生態長袍、讓人頂禮濕婆神的想法。這部短片「重新編織濕婆的長袍」介紹這個專案計畫。

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